4000 BC (circa):
Estimated time-table for the beginning of the
divide of an original Indo-European language
into separate linguistic paths. The identity
and original location of this culture is the
subject of much speculation.
Proto-Armenian tribes develop a culture that
evolves around agriculture, metal working and
animal husbandry. Recent archeological
discoveries highlight several agreements
between this thriving civilization in the
Armenian highland and Indo-European
- 600 BC:
emerges as a formidable military power.
is used as a way of record-keeping. First usage
of dividing a text into separate paragraphs
appears in Urartean artifacts. By
cent. BC, Luwian, Urartean, Hurrian, Hittite
and Thraco-Phrygian linguistic components merge
to constitute the basis of the Armenian
BC - 300 AD:
Cuneiform is substituted by Greek and
Assyrian/Aramaic letters as means of
300 - 100 BC:
Works on language by
provide the first grammatical textbooks. The
Dionysius of Thrax
serves as the model to arrange the fundamentals
of Armenian grammar.
Conversion of Armenia to Christianity. In order
to propagate the new religion, every element,
including written records related to the pagan
past, is destroyed. Pagan temples that were
also centers of learning become a particular
target for destruction.
Invention of the Armenian Alphabet by
under the auspices of
the Catholigos. Details of the birth of the
letters are described by
Golden Age of Armenian language and literature.
During this period, 5 notable authors:
although contemporaries, use different
styles and frameworks to write on historical
events taking place in the Armenian homeland
and its past.
becomes the first Armenian grammarian to
question the fundamentals articulated by
Dionysius Thrax and develops his own theories
on language, grammar and etymology.
- Two separate groups of linguists/writers
embark on identifying and translating important
works of the era from other centers of
First translation of the Bible into Armenian. A
second revision of the Armenian Bible from
Aramaic and Greek texts finalizes the
A series of
(hymns) help develop Armenian poetry dedicated
to spirituality. Among many noted authors are
two female poets:
(735) pioneers Armenian phonetics and
pronunciation. He elaborates the principles for
the precise articulation of separate sounds and
syllables and makes the first classification of
Armenian vowels and
The city of Ani, capital city of the Pakradouny
dynasty, becomes the spiritual and intellectual
center of the Armenian Kingdom. In
Krikor M. Pahlavouni
elevates the art of grammar to new levels by
his comparative studies of Armenian with other
languages. In addition to his comparative
studies, he also writes to object the method of
free etymology and elaborates the principles of
(11th century) and
also make more than casual contribution to
enrich the language.
Although written in classical Armenian, the
Gregory of Nareg
elevates the language to new heights in terms
of literary style and vocabulary by using words
borrowed from vernacular Armenian as well as
his creative ways of coining new compound
The center of Armenian linguistic and literary
evolution shifts to the Kingdom of Cilicia. A
new branch of grammar, “the
art of writing”,
is established. The first orthographic reform
is also carried out.
- 13th Cent.:
Vernacular Armenian spreads into literary
works. First attempts to improve the system of
declension and simplification of syntax are
revive the traditions of the ancient Armenian
folklore by writing fables in middle
(proto-modern) Armenian prose.
: The “Art
includes scientific remarks on the spelling of
difficult or borrowed words. His orthographic
principles serve as the basis for subsequent
writes two of his grammatical works in
(vernacular Armenian). His “Parts
is the first methodical attempt to articulate
the principles of Armenian syntax.
Incidentally, Areveltsi predicts that the
languages will disappear in the future and
humanity will use one language.
- In a valuable textbook,
contention of the divinity of languages by
considering language a human achievement and
not a divine invention. He also believes that
grammar helps to eliminate obstacles between
human thought and speech.
Gregory of Datev
revises the definitions in the works of
and makes new suggestions on improving
orthography and the cases of declension.
the Stress and Interrogation
a well-known work on the Armenian language in
the medieval period.
finishes his work “The
Definition of Grammar”.
Brief Study of Grammar”
pays attention, for the first time, to the
biological basis of speech.
Among the great number of
works are three grammatical texts related to
the principles of syllabification,
pronunciation and orthography.
– 17th Cent.:
After the fall of the Armenian Kingdom of
Cilicia in 1375, repeated destruction of
Armenian monasteries and dispersion of the
Armenian population by Memluk, Mongol, Tatar
and Turkic tribes disrupted the cultural
evolution of Armenians.
16th & 18th Cent.:
The dire conditions of the Armenian homeland
offer the opportunity toKousans
(lyrical singers) to gradually imprint poetry
with secular outlook.
Gregory of Van,
and others deal primarily with the
preoccupations of Armenian populations living
under the yoke of Persian and Turkic rulers.
the poet/troubadour, paves the way to a new era
in Armenian poetry.
New centers for learning develop outside the
- Printing houses are established in Venice
(1511), Amsterdam and Marseille.
monastery in Venice in 1717. The stated mission
of the monastery is “The
spiritual enlightenment of the Armenian
- First Armenian newspaper,
is published in 1794 in Madras, India.
- Institutions of higher learning with secular
outlooks are established.
is founded in Moscow (1815).
Samuel Mourad College
is established in Paris
The division of the Armenian homeland between
Russian and Ottoman Empires leads to the
beginning of two separate Armenian cultural
hubs centered in Tiflis (Tiblissi) and
On April 24, 1915, Ottoman authorities arrest
and ultimately assassinate the entire
intellectual elite (writers, teachers, poets)
of the Armenian population. Soon, the Genocide
of 1915, perpetrated by the Turks, wipes out
the Armenian population of Historical Armenia.
Survivors carry with them their only remaining
possession: Western Armenian linguistic
A small portion of the Armenian homeland
becomes part of the Soviet Union. In the
following 50 years limitations on intellectual
freedoms and Stalinist purges disrupt the
normal evolution of the progress of Eastern
Armenian version of modern Armenian